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Buku Auschwitz by Sybille Steinbacher

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Auschwitz by Sybille Steinbacher

Author:Sybille Steinbacher

Language: eng

Format: epub

Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd

Published: 2004-06-26T16:00:00+00:00

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Auschwitz by Sybille Steinbacher

Experiments in killing

The first mass killings in Auschwitz were not yet a part of the systematic policy to murder the European Jews. Rather they took place in the context of the experiments of the SS, the so-called ‘euthanasia programme’, which had been discontinued in August 1941, in the wake of ‘Aktion 14f13’, to be resumed in the lawless space of the concentration camps across the Reich. In many camps experiments were carried out into different methods of killing: in Buchenwald the SS installed a piece of equipment that delivered a shot to the back of the neck, in Mauthausen ‘death baths’ were introduced, in Dachau prisoners were made victims of large-scale medical experiments – and in Auschwitz the guards busied themselves with the cyanide gas Zyklon B.

The poison gas was stored in airtight sealed metal tins, and was initially deployed from July 1941 in the battle on vermin, to disinfect housing and clothes. The manufacturer was the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung (Degesch) (German Pest Control Company) in Frankfurt am Main, a subsidiary company of IG Farben. The poison was delivered by the Hamburg firm Tesch und Stabenow, whose employees, equipped with gas masks, initially undertook the fumigations, but were later trained as SS medical orderlies. At the end of August or the beginning of September 1941, the exact time cannot be precisely identified, Zyklon B was used at first experimentally, but soon regularly, to murder prisoners. From a temperature of about 26°C the cyanide granules turn into gas on contact with air, and are deadly even in small quantities.

 

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Auschwitz by Sybille Steinbacher

Author:Sybille Steinbacher , Date: June 27, 2019

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Author:Sybille Steinbacher

Language: eng

Format: epub

Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd

Published: 2004-06-26T16:00:00+00:00
Experiments in killing

The first mass killings in Auschwitz were not yet a part of the systematic policy to murder the European Jews. Rather they took place in the context of the experiments of the SS, the so-called ‘euthanasia programme’, which had been discontinued in August 1941, in the wake of ‘Aktion 14f13’, to be resumed in the lawless space of the concentration camps across the Reich. In many camps experiments were carried out into different methods of killing: in Buchenwald the SS installed a piece of equipment that delivered a shot to the back of the neck, in Mauthausen ‘death baths’ were introduced, in Dachau prisoners were made victims of large-scale medical experiments – and in Auschwitz the guards busied themselves with the cyanide gas Zyklon B.

The poison gas was stored in airtight sealed metal tins, and was initially deployed from July 1941 in the battle on vermin, to disinfect housing and clothes. The manufacturer was the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung (Degesch) (German Pest Control Company) in Frankfurt am Main, a subsidiary company of IG Farben. The poison was delivered by the Hamburg firm Tesch und Stabenow, whose employees, equipped with gas masks, initially undertook the fumigations, but were later trained as SS medical orderlies. At the end of August or the beginning of September 1941, the exact time cannot be precisely identified, Zyklon B was used at first experimentally, but soon regularly, to murder prisoners. From a temperature of about 26°C the cyanide granules turn into gas on contact with air, and are deadly even in small quantities.

The first victims were prisoners of war from the Soviet Union, and also sick and weak prisoners of other categories, including Jews from forced-labour camps in East Upper Silesia. Around 5 September 1941 the first mass killings took place in Auschwitz, when some 900 Soviet prisoners of war and sick prisoners of other categories were murdered in the cells in the basement of the punishment block (block 11). They also included members of the punishment squad, among them many Poles, who had to pay for the escape of a prisoner. The division of labour in the removal and use of the corpses was soon perfected. Prisoners had to drag the corpses from the cellar to the courtyard of the punishment block, undress them, heave them on to trolleys and bring them to freshly dug mass graves. Partly to keep events secret from the other prisoners, and also because the removal of the corpses from the cellar was hard work, in 1941 the murder operations were transferred to the crematorium of the parent camp, which had been put into action in 1940, and which was later called the ‘old crematorium’, or ‘crematorium I’. The mortuary was turned into a gas chamber: the doors were sealed and openings made in the ceiling for Zyklon B to be poured in. By December 1942 the crematorium served as a place of extermination, and by July 1943 it was used to incinerate the bodies of the murdered prisoners.

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