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Celts and the Classical World by Rankin David;

Author:Rankin, David;

Language: eng

Format: epub

Tags: ebook

Publisher: Routledge

Published: 2011-08-08T16:00:00+00:00

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Celts and the Classical World by Rankin David;

8 Celts and Iberians

In a legend preserved by the Romantic mythologist Parthenius, Iberos is mentioned together with Keltos as offspring of Heracles by the nymph Asterope (Parthenius 30). Asterope is the daughter of Atlas. It may not be coincidence that Eber is one of the mythological ancestors of the Irish. Eratosthenes distinguished between the Spain of 500 BC, in which Celts were not so prominent a portion of the population, and that of his own time, in which they were. He was writing in the third century BC. He was criticised by Polybius and Strabo, who misunderstood the distinction which he was making. The myth is not inappropriate, for the cultural stratification of the Iberian peninsula in antiquity is complex, and it is not easy to identify traits which belong to the various components of the population. Yet the Celtiberes or Celtiberi seem to have been a blend of Celts with a previous population of Iberians. The Celtiberians were the most belligerent of the Iberian peninsula’s inhabitants and they inflicted terrible losses on the Romans in the course of their long struggle against Rome.

After the second Punic War during which Rome had perforce become a major power in Spain, the confederations of the Lusitani and Celtiberians were a constant source of trouble and expenditure to the Republic. The persistence in hostility to Rome of these groups in the period after the Hannibalic war can be considered as the military factor which more than any other brought about the transformation of the Roman army from citizen levies into a professional fighting force (Toynbee 1965:2.61).

 

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Celts and the Classical World by Rankin David;

Author:Rankin, David; , Date: June 7, 2019

,Views: 43

Author:Rankin, David;

Language: eng

Format: epub

Tags: ebook

Publisher: Routledge

Published: 2011-08-08T16:00:00+00:00
8 Celts and Iberians

In a legend preserved by the Romantic mythologist Parthenius, Iberos is mentioned together with Keltos as offspring of Heracles by the nymph Asterope (Parthenius 30). Asterope is the daughter of Atlas. It may not be coincidence that Eber is one of the mythological ancestors of the Irish. Eratosthenes distinguished between the Spain of 500 BC, in which Celts were not so prominent a portion of the population, and that of his own time, in which they were. He was writing in the third century BC. He was criticised by Polybius and Strabo, who misunderstood the distinction which he was making. The myth is not inappropriate, for the cultural stratification of the Iberian peninsula in antiquity is complex, and it is not easy to identify traits which belong to the various components of the population. Yet the Celtiberes or Celtiberi seem to have been a blend of Celts with a previous population of Iberians. The Celtiberians were the most belligerent of the Iberian peninsula’s inhabitants and they inflicted terrible losses on the Romans in the course of their long struggle against Rome.

After the second Punic War during which Rome had perforce become a major power in Spain, the confederations of the Lusitani and Celtiberians were a constant source of trouble and expenditure to the Republic. The persistence in hostility to Rome of these groups in the period after the Hannibalic war can be considered as the military factor which more than any other brought about the transformation of the Roman army from citizen levies into a professional fighting force (Toynbee 1965:2.61).

The Celtiberians had a distinct ethnic character in the ancient world. There was a strong Celtic element in them. Other tribes, such as the Lusitani and Vaccaei, seem to have been of Celtic or part-Celtic culture and speech. Some of the Lusitani appear to have spoken, or understood, or at least used for inscriptional purposes, an IE language which had some features in common with Celtic and which was of a very archaic and conservative linguistic type (Tovar 1973:195ff). There were also the Celtici, a southern Spanish tribe of Celtic character and connection. The Celtici lived near Gades and Tartessus. Archaeological evidence seems to suggest that Celts (or people who lived like them) were in the lower parts of the Guadalquivir valley as early as the sixth century BC (Arribas 1981:46). Avienus’ account of the region may reflect this. Tumuli in Andalusia could be interpreted as the burial place of Celtic leaders: if so, these graves represent a culture influenced by Mediterranean ideas and themes.

The tribal name of the Celtiberi (we shall usually speak of ‘Celtiberians’) suggests a definite, indeed a possibly deliberate, mixing of tribes. Celtiberia as such was a relatively narrow area in the north-west of Spain (Pl. NH 3.20). ‘Celtiberian’ is sometimes used in a more extended meaning which covers the whole Celtic phase of the Iberian and Celtic cultural mixture in western and central western areas of the Iberian peninsula.

Poseidonius is no doubt responsible for the following remarks about the Celtiberians in the text of Diodorus 5.

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