Buku Classics : an investor’s anthology by unknow

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Classics : an investor’s anthology by unknow

Author:unknow

Language: eng

Format: epub

Tags: Investments, Risk management, Stock exchanges

Publisher: Homewood, Ill. : Dow Jones-Irwin

Published: 1989-05-27T19:00:00+00:00

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Classics : an investor’s anthology by unknow

Summing Up

Having reviewed four areas in which important financial decisions are made, we see that there can be important differences in the ways in which professional management and professional stockholders are inclined to approach a solution. Various criteria commonly used for decision making reflect these conflicting viewpoints. The viewpoint or bias which is embedded in these apparently objective criteria is not always evident to those who use and are affected by them. In particular I have argued that:

1. Management tends to focus on the effects of various actions on cash flows, particularly those in the immediate future. While this is not necessarily in conflict with the stockholders’ interest in their personal share of corporate property values, there are circumstances where an increase in corporate cash flows retained for internal use may be obtained only at some sacrifice of growth in the property values as measured by dividends, earnings per share, and market price.

 

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Classics : an investor’s anthology by unknow

Author:unknow , Date: July 11, 2019

,Views: 14

Author:unknow

Language: eng

Format: epub

Tags: Investments, Risk management, Stock exchanges

Publisher: Homewood, Ill. : Dow Jones-Irwin

Published: 1989-05-27T19:00:00+00:00
Summing Up

Having reviewed four areas in which important financial decisions are made, we see that there can be important differences in the ways in which professional management and professional stockholders are inclined to approach a solution. Various criteria commonly used for decision making reflect these conflicting viewpoints. The viewpoint or bias which is embedded in these apparently objective criteria is not always evident to those who use and are affected by them. In particular I have argued that:

1. Management tends to focus on the effects of various actions on cash flows, particularly those in the immediate future. While this is not necessarily in conflict with the stockholders’ interest in their personal share of corporate property values, there are circumstances where an increase in corporate cash flows retained for internal use may be obtained only at some sacrifice of growth in the property values as measured by dividends, earnings per share, and market price.

2. The stockholder, as a diversified investor, is inclined to impose investment standards leading to an increased cash outflow to him when the internal return on investment does not match external opportunities. It is, however, unrealistic to expect professional management to accept the implications for such a decision rule, which amounts to an open admission of inferior ability.

3. The potential conflict over investment standards is related to decisions on sources of funds, where management will always give top priority to retained earnings, thus implying that internally generated funds are automatically committed to internal investment opportunities. Though tax law favors the management position here, the stockholder is not likely to go along as a universal rule. A related preference of management is to minimize the cash flow to the stockholder in the form of dividends, though not to the point where an aroused stockholder group poses a threat to management.

4. Investment and fund-acquisition decisions are made by management in the light of risks to the individual corporate entity and executives’ own personal risk preferences, and not in the context of the stockholders’ portfolio risks (where diversification does much to modify risk magnitudes).

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