Buku Daily Life in Arthurian Britain by Shepherd Deborah

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Daily Life in Arthurian Britain by Shepherd Deborah

Author:Shepherd, Deborah [Shepherd, Deborah]

Language: eng

Format: azw3

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

Published: 2013-08-11T16:00:00+00:00

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Daily Life in Arthurian Britain by Shepherd Deborah

Leather

Leather production, particularly for the military, had been an industry in Roman times. Containers for transporting and consuming liquids of all kinds were often made of leather. Sturdy footwear, belts, and straps of all kinds such as those used to saddle and harness horses and other transport animals were often made preferably from leather. Processed leather does not normally survive on archaeological sites unless it has become buried in perpetually waterlogged underground layers. This circumstance happened at several urban centers with low-lying wharf areas situated near the water table. York and Dublin provide particularly good examples, but their underwater remains date mainly to the eighth century or later when the trade activity at these towns accelerated under the newly arrived Viking invaders. For the Britons and early Anglo-Saxons three centuries earlier, there are no comparable waterlogged sites, but given the presence of domestic animals, the earlier leather consumption of the Romans, and knowledge of leatherworking, they were capable of making a sufficient supply.

Aside from providing material for footwear and horse gear, leather was often the product of choice whenever a strong, flexible material was needed. The application of oils and resins made leather water resistant. Skins were stretched thin enough to let light through and were then used to cover windows. Glass window panes were a luxury far in the future, but skins let in some light and protected from the elements. For those who knew how to write, animal skins could be made into parchment, the material bound in book covers, and used for manuscript texts and record-keeping before paper became known. Leather attached to a wooden frame created a bellows capable of blowing large quantities of air to maintain fires in forge and furnace.

 

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Daily Life in Arthurian Britain by Shepherd Deborah

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Daily Life in Arthurian Britain by Shepherd Deborah

 

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Daily Life in Arthurian Britain by Shepherd Deborah

Author:Shepherd, Deborah [Shepherd, Deborah] , Date: June 7, 2019

,Views: 52

Author:Shepherd, Deborah [Shepherd, Deborah]

Language: eng

Format: azw3

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

Published: 2013-08-11T16:00:00+00:00
Leather

Leather production, particularly for the military, had been an industry in Roman times. Containers for transporting and consuming liquids of all kinds were often made of leather. Sturdy footwear, belts, and straps of all kinds such as those used to saddle and harness horses and other transport animals were often made preferably from leather. Processed leather does not normally survive on archaeological sites unless it has become buried in perpetually waterlogged underground layers. This circumstance happened at several urban centers with low-lying wharf areas situated near the water table. York and Dublin provide particularly good examples, but their underwater remains date mainly to the eighth century or later when the trade activity at these towns accelerated under the newly arrived Viking invaders. For the Britons and early Anglo-Saxons three centuries earlier, there are no comparable waterlogged sites, but given the presence of domestic animals, the earlier leather consumption of the Romans, and knowledge of leatherworking, they were capable of making a sufficient supply.

Aside from providing material for footwear and horse gear, leather was often the product of choice whenever a strong, flexible material was needed. The application of oils and resins made leather water resistant. Skins were stretched thin enough to let light through and were then used to cover windows. Glass window panes were a luxury far in the future, but skins let in some light and protected from the elements. For those who knew how to write, animal skins could be made into parchment, the material bound in book covers, and used for manuscript texts and record-keeping before paper became known. Leather attached to a wooden frame created a bellows capable of blowing large quantities of air to maintain fires in forge and furnace.

Protective gear for battle and gloves and aprons necessary for working with hot metals were made from leather. Before the advent of chain mail and metal armors, warriors relied mostly on thick leather to create body protection from helmet to tunic and leggings. Although metal helmets were occasionally used, many warriors did not have them. The few known examples come primarily from wealthy warrior graves and appear by their decoration to have been made more for show than for protection in battle. In truth, no iron helmet would protect the head from a well-aimed sword, axe, or mace blow. Helmets were only good for light protection, so a thick leather helmet was just as useful and easier to wear. Leather head covers could be reinforced with riveted metal plates if desired.

Tanning is a both chemical and physical process by which raw skins removed from a butchered animal are turned into flexible but dry leather or suede. Ancient and early medieval tanners began the process by physically cleaning the skins in water and then scrubbing them to remove fats, blood, dirt, and other matter. Removal of hair fibers was accomplished different ways, but the use of tannins was a popular method. Sources of vegetable tannins commonly used at the time were oak bark and stale urine. A soaking in tannins loosened the hairs so that they could be scraped off.

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