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Early Voyages and Northern Approaches 1000-1632 by Tryggvi J. Oleson

Author:Tryggvi J. Oleson

Language: eng

Format: epub

Publisher: McClelland & Stewart

Published: 2016-09-26T16:00:00+00:00

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Early Voyages and Northern Approaches 1000-1632 by Tryggvi J. Oleson

CHAPTER 15

Voyages to Greenland and the Canadian Arctic

While the imaginary expeditions discussed in the last chapter were not being made, voyages continued to be made between Greenland, Iceland, and Norway. There was, it is true, a diminution of sailings between Iceland and Greenland, as the Crown throughout the fourteenth century made trade with both Iceland and Greenland more and more a state monopoly. In 1294, Bergen was made a staple for wares between Norway and these two islands. It is not, however, until the middle of the fourteenth century that sailings between the various realms of the king of Norway were placed under severe restrictions. There were many reasons for these new restrictions: for example, the desire of the Norwegian kings in the first half of the fourteenth century to increase commerce and encourage the growth of towns, and the rise of a merchant class. Most important of all was probably the social dislocation caused by the Black Death, which struck Norway in 1349 and enfeebled her in numerous ways for decades thereafter.

 

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Early Voyages and Northern Approaches 1000-1632 by Tryggvi J. Oleson

Author:Tryggvi J. Oleson , Date: June 6, 2019

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Author:Tryggvi J. Oleson

Language: eng

Format: epub

Publisher: McClelland & Stewart

Published: 2016-09-26T16:00:00+00:00
CHAPTER 15

Voyages to Greenland and the Canadian Arctic

While the imaginary expeditions discussed in the last chapter were not being made, voyages continued to be made between Greenland, Iceland, and Norway. There was, it is true, a diminution of sailings between Iceland and Greenland, as the Crown throughout the fourteenth century made trade with both Iceland and Greenland more and more a state monopoly. In 1294, Bergen was made a staple for wares between Norway and these two islands. It is not, however, until the middle of the fourteenth century that sailings between the various realms of the king of Norway were placed under severe restrictions. There were many reasons for these new restrictions: for example, the desire of the Norwegian kings in the first half of the fourteenth century to increase commerce and encourage the growth of towns, and the rise of a merchant class. Most important of all was probably the social dislocation caused by the Black Death, which struck Norway in 1349 and enfeebled her in numerous ways for decades thereafter.

During the thirteenth century the Germans and especially the Hansa merchants increased their commerce with Norway and other lands of the Norwegian king. When Bergen was made a staple in 1294, Germans trading with the various cities of Norway were forbidden to sail north of Bergen and all foreign merchants were similarly restricted in 1306. They were also forbidden to sail to Iceland, Greenland, and other tributary lands of the Norwegian king. This ban was reiterated in 1348 and, at this time, Bergen merchants took the first step toward the monopoly which was to be fully confirmed to them by King Hakon Magnusson in 1361, that is, the sole right to trade with Iceland, Greenland, and the other tributary lands of the Crown. It would seem from Ivar Bardarson’s Description of Greenland that some time between 1294 and 1364, Sandr, the harbour of Herjolfsnes, was made a staple in Greenland, for he calls it a public harbour for Norwegians and merchants.1

There can be no doubt that up to the Black Death, communications between Norway and Greenland were frequent, and many wares from that country and the Canadian Arctic made their way to Norway. Church tithes and taxes were, for example, paid in walrus tusks and ropes made from the hide of the walrus. We do not know, of course, whether the Crown lived up to its old obligation to send at least two ships a year to Greenland, but we do know that Icelandic annals do not mention any lack of sailings to Greenland as they do at times to Iceland. It is, however, likely that, especially after the extinction of the Western Settlement in 1342 and the possible establishment of a staple at Sandr, only one knorr – a large one – was sent out every year or every other year. As we shall see, Icelandic annals in the latter half of the fourteenth century speak of the Greenland knorr and not knarrar.

In the fourteenth century it

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