Buku Footbinding As Fashion by John Robert Shepherd;

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Footbinding As Fashion by John Robert Shepherd;

Author:John Robert Shepherd;

Language: eng

Format: epub

ISBN: 9780295744421

Publisher: University of Washington Press

Published: 2019-06-13T16:00:00+00:00

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Footbinding As Fashion by John Robert Shepherd;

FIGURE 7.1.Proportions of females with bound feet by dollar value of handicrafts per female, 1928 (118 counties, Hebei; r = –0.024). Sources: Proportions bound-footed and female population: Neizheng gongbao 1929, vol. 2.7; Hebei 1928 1930: minzhenglei 36–39. Handicraft values: Hebei 1928 1930: gongshanglei 9–35; Nankai Weekly Statistical Service 1933: table 3.

The results for the Baodi ($26 per female) and Gaoyang ($82 per female) weaving districts also raise doubts about economic determinants of footbinding. The handicraft hypothesis predicts that more efficient looms and the use of machine yarn reduce the pressure on young girls to spend long hours spinning yarn and thus “loosened the commitment to footbinding.”108 The proportion bound-footed in the Baodi district counties was an above-average 60% and in the Gaoyang district counties 34%. Conceivably, the Gaoyang district counties’ below-average proportions bound fit the expectations of the handicraft hypothesis for an advanced weaving district, but the Baodi district counties’ high proportions bound do not. Despite the similar factors at work in Baodi and Gaoyang—neither were major cotton producers and both were early adopters of iron-gear looms and machine-spun yarns—and the high dollar values produced per female, the rates of footbinding in the two weaving districts are highly divergent. Clearly, explaining the divergent rates of binding in the two advanced weaving districts requires factors beyond the economic.

The handicraft hypothesis maintains that bound feet make it easier to sustain long hours devoted to sedentary tasks. Because it is quite possible that long hours invested in some handicraft work produce goods of only small market value, it can be argued that using market values measured in dollars does not fairly represent all the hours devoted to different lines of handcraft production. There is no feasible way of equating the hours needed to produce a bolt of cloth, a reed mat, a straw hat or braid, or other plaited wares to create a measure of work hours that would include all the major handicraft types.109 The central role of cotton textile production in the formulation of the handicraft hypothesis makes it appropriate to narrow the focus to the number of bolts of cloth produced per female. This gives a direct measure of quantities produced for the home handicraft industry that is the most significant by dollar value (77.5% of the handicrafts total). Of course, depending on loom type, the number of hours needed to produce a bolt of cloth can vary significantly. To moderate this effect, the Baodi and Gaoyang weaving districts using high proportions of the efficient iron-gear looms are excluded from the sample. Of necessity, the entire female population is used in the denominator (not the number of women actually weaving) to measure the importance of the weaving industry to the local economy, not to measure the productivity in bolts per weaver.

 

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Footbinding As Fashion by John Robert Shepherd;

Author:John Robert Shepherd; , Date: June 14, 2019

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Author:John Robert Shepherd;

Language: eng

Format: epub

ISBN: 9780295744421

Publisher: University of Washington Press

Published: 2019-06-13T16:00:00+00:00
FIGURE 7.1.Proportions of females with bound feet by dollar value of handicrafts per female, 1928 (118 counties, Hebei; r = –0.024). Sources: Proportions bound-footed and female population: Neizheng gongbao 1929, vol. 2.7; Hebei 1928 1930: minzhenglei 36–39. Handicraft values: Hebei 1928 1930: gongshanglei 9–35; Nankai Weekly Statistical Service 1933: table 3.

The results for the Baodi ($26 per female) and Gaoyang ($82 per female) weaving districts also raise doubts about economic determinants of footbinding. The handicraft hypothesis predicts that more efficient looms and the use of machine yarn reduce the pressure on young girls to spend long hours spinning yarn and thus “loosened the commitment to footbinding.”108 The proportion bound-footed in the Baodi district counties was an above-average 60% and in the Gaoyang district counties 34%. Conceivably, the Gaoyang district counties’ below-average proportions bound fit the expectations of the handicraft hypothesis for an advanced weaving district, but the Baodi district counties’ high proportions bound do not. Despite the similar factors at work in Baodi and Gaoyang—neither were major cotton producers and both were early adopters of iron-gear looms and machine-spun yarns—and the high dollar values produced per female, the rates of footbinding in the two weaving districts are highly divergent. Clearly, explaining the divergent rates of binding in the two advanced weaving districts requires factors beyond the economic.

The handicraft hypothesis maintains that bound feet make it easier to sustain long hours devoted to sedentary tasks. Because it is quite possible that long hours invested in some handicraft work produce goods of only small market value, it can be argued that using market values measured in dollars does not fairly represent all the hours devoted to different lines of handcraft production. There is no feasible way of equating the hours needed to produce a bolt of cloth, a reed mat, a straw hat or braid, or other plaited wares to create a measure of work hours that would include all the major handicraft types.109 The central role of cotton textile production in the formulation of the handicraft hypothesis makes it appropriate to narrow the focus to the number of bolts of cloth produced per female. This gives a direct measure of quantities produced for the home handicraft industry that is the most significant by dollar value (77.5% of the handicrafts total). Of course, depending on loom type, the number of hours needed to produce a bolt of cloth can vary significantly. To moderate this effect, the Baodi and Gaoyang weaving districts using high proportions of the efficient iron-gear looms are excluded from the sample. Of necessity, the entire female population is used in the denominator (not the number of women actually weaving) to measure the importance of the weaving industry to the local economy, not to measure the productivity in bolts per weaver.

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