Buku Still the Iron Age by Vaclav Smil

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Still the Iron Age by Vaclav Smil

Author:Vaclav Smil

Language: eng

Format: epub

ISBN: 9780128042359

Publisher: Elsevier Science

Published: 2016-04-15T00:00:00+00:00

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Still the Iron Age by Vaclav Smil

Despite these accomplishments, the long-term worldwide trend toward more secondary metal was recently even temporarily reversed because of China’s enormous expansion in the smelting of pig iron. The global steel:pig iron ratio was about 0.9 in 1900, it reached 1.41 in 1950, it rose only marginally to 1.48 by the year 2000, and then it fell back to 1.39 by 2010 and increased a bit, to 1.41, by 2013 (WSA, 2015). But the story has been different in the United States thanks to the country’s long history of ferrous metallurgy and its large stores of scrap iron.

The US steel:pig iron ratio rose from 0.72 in 1900 to 1.23 in 1950, it stood just above 2.0 in the year 2000, and, despite the fact that the country has become a major scrap exporter, it rose to 2.82 in 2010 and 2.86 in 2013, when nearly three times as much steel came from recycled material than from iron ores. For comparison, steel:pig iron ratios are high in Germany (1.57 in 2013, scrap sourced from domestic stocks) and South Korea (1.61, scrap mostly from imports), still low in China (1.16 in 2013), and, surprisingly, also low in the United Kingdom. About half of the world’s 90 steel-producing countries, with most of them being small producers in Europe (Bulgaria, Greece, Portugal), the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Asia, now rely only on EAFs and on mostly imported scrap.

 

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Still the Iron Age by Vaclav Smil

Author:Vaclav Smil , Date: July 19, 2019

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Author:Vaclav Smil

Language: eng

Format: epub

ISBN: 9780128042359

Publisher: Elsevier Science

Published: 2016-04-15T00:00:00+00:00
Despite these accomplishments, the long-term worldwide trend toward more secondary metal was recently even temporarily reversed because of China’s enormous expansion in the smelting of pig iron. The global steel:pig iron ratio was about 0.9 in 1900, it reached 1.41 in 1950, it rose only marginally to 1.48 by the year 2000, and then it fell back to 1.39 by 2010 and increased a bit, to 1.41, by 2013 (WSA, 2015). But the story has been different in the United States thanks to the country’s long history of ferrous metallurgy and its large stores of scrap iron.

The US steel:pig iron ratio rose from 0.72 in 1900 to 1.23 in 1950, it stood just above 2.0 in the year 2000, and, despite the fact that the country has become a major scrap exporter, it rose to 2.82 in 2010 and 2.86 in 2013, when nearly three times as much steel came from recycled material than from iron ores. For comparison, steel:pig iron ratios are high in Germany (1.57 in 2013, scrap sourced from domestic stocks) and South Korea (1.61, scrap mostly from imports), still low in China (1.16 in 2013), and, surprisingly, also low in the United Kingdom. About half of the world’s 90 steel-producing countries, with most of them being small producers in Europe (Bulgaria, Greece, Portugal), the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Asia, now rely only on EAFs and on mostly imported scrap.

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